There goes the neighborhood. When wealthy interlopers start building luxury condos and juice bars in formerly gritty and eclectic neighborhoods, tensions can get high. Test your knowledge of the gentrification process with this quiz.
What is the popular term for the post-WWII migration of middle-class white families out of urban areas and into the suburbs?
- The Big Move
- White Flight
- The Suburban Shift
In the early 1980s, the rent for a small bike shop in Park Slope, Brooklyn was $700 a month. What was the market value of the same storefront in 1998?
- $2,000 a month
- $5,000 a month
- $10,000 a month
What is the generally accepted definition of gentrification?
- When wealthier people move into an urban neighborhood, rents and prices increase, lower income residents are displaced and the character of the neighborhood is changed.
- When formerly neglected areas are rehabilitated and affordable housing is built for lower income residents.
- When people from the suburbs move to wealthier "exurbs."
When urban geographer Ruth Glass coined the term gentrification in the 1960s, did she intend for it to have a positive or negative connotation?
The root of gentrification is the word "gentry," which means which of the following?
- Country folk
- White people
- The ruling class or aristocracy
What is the typical demographic shift that occurs during the gentrification process?
- Higher median income, more racial minorities, more families
- Lower median income, fewer racial minorities, more families
- Higher median income, fewer racial minorities, fewer families
Which of the following does NOT represent the typical shift in real estate and land use during gentrification?
- Conversion of industrial buildings into loft apartments
- Conversion of single family homes into multi-unit apartments
- Conversion of multi-unit brownstones into single family homes
What is the popular term for predominately white, middle-class, educated city dwellers who are the first to move into marginal urban neighborhoods?
- City slickers
- Dumpster divers
- Urban pioneers
Which of the following is NOT a sign that a long-neglected urban neighborhood has been populated by urban pioneers?
- Artist lofts being built in formerly industrial buildings
- The arrival of "chain" stores like Walgreens or Starbucks
- Opening of several bohemian cafes, hipster bars and underground nightclubs
What is one of the main factors that encourages wealthier families to buy or rent in neighborhoods "reclaimed" by urban pioneers?
- Diversification of investments
- Rising real estate prices in more established urban neighborhoods and suburbs.
- Proximity to better restaurants
True or False: It is illegal for the new owner or an apartment building to evict month-to-month renters without cause.
Can a new landlord raise the rent on tenants with a fixed-term lease?
In a city with rent control ordinances, is it illegal for a landlord to raise the rent when the original tenant moves out?
- Depends on the rent control laws of that particular city
In a city without rent control ordinances, is there a limit to how much a landlord can raise the rent once a lease expires?
According to new gentrification research based on census data, which of the following statements is most true?
- Lower-income residents move out of gentrifying neighborhoods at a faster rate than non-gentrifying neighborhoods
- Lower-income residents move out of gentriying neigborhoods at a slower rate than non-gentrifying neighborhoods
- Lower-income residents move out of gentrifying neighborhoods at the same rate as non-gentrifying neighborhoods
What is the main difference between the "displacement" of lower-income residents and the process of "succession?"
- Displacement is illegal, but succession is technically legal.
- Displacement implies that lower-income residents are actively removed from neighborhoods, often by force.
- With succession, lower-income residents aren't forced out by higher rents; they simply move out of the neighborhood at a normal rate and are replaced by higher-income residents
Which of the following are considered some of the positive effects of gentrification?
- Increased economic activity, lower vacancy rates, lower crime
- Higher prices, greater diversity, better shopping
- Cleaner streets, affordable housing, more jobs
According to census data, what is the demographic that is most likely to move into a gentrifying neighborhood?
- High-school educated people less than 30 years old
- College-educated white people more than 40 years old
- College-educated people more than 40 years old
More surprising to researchers, what is another demographic with a high probability of moving into gentrifying neighborhoods?
- 40-to-60-year-old Hispanics without a high-school diploma
- College-educated black residents more than 40
- High-school educated white families with 3 or more children
According to the latest research, which demographic contributes the greatest percentage of total income gain in a gentrifying neighborhood?
- Whites with a college degree
- Hispanic householders with a high-school degree
- Black residents with a high-school degree