Europe is not just the European Union. It's a continent with about 50 countries. Twenty-seven of these (plus Britain, for now) belong to the European Union, but there are others that merely live alongside them and do business with them. Europe has been inhabited for some 10,000 years and more, since before the dawn of civilization, which means that its cities tended to grow very organically. Sometimes they would grow, flourish for a period, and then be destroyed. Other times, however, it meant that they would simply be conquered, renamed, and absorbed into a new empire or nation. Some cities achieved independence, while others started out that way but later became part of a larger whole, as in Greece or Italy.
How well do you know the cities of Europe? Even if you've visited a few of them, you may struggle to match the city to the country. After all, Europe's borders shift a lot, such that you could live in the same house your entire life and move countries a whole lot of times! Still, we're interested to know if you can pinpoint the city and the state as they are today. Let's see how you do!
Dublin is the capital of Ireland. Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland, which is part of the UK.
Berlin is the capital of Germany. It was once the capital of both halves of Germany, divided by the Berlin Wall.
Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, which is part of the U.K. It is the second-largest city in Scotland, after Glasgow!
Madrid is the capital of Spain. It is unusual for a Spanish city as most settlements tend to be near Spain's coasts, while Madrid is smack in the middle.
Brussels is home to the European Parliament. It is also home to a marvelous tiny cabbage that is delicious fried in honey and balsamic vinegar!
Switzerland's capital is Bern but its major centers are Zurich and Geneva. It is a tax haven where a lot of illegal money is stored.
Vienna is known for its opera, and also for the fact that it's just amazingly beautiful. Even better, you can get to the Alps in no time from there!
Sparta is a city in Greece. It used to be an independent state in ancient times, but now it is part of the united nation of Greece.
Florence is not the capital of Italy but it is one of its most beautiful cities. Historically, it has also been one of its most corrupt.
Portugal and Spain together make up the Iberian peninsula. Portugal's only neighbor is Spain. Its capital city is Lisbon.
Poland has the dubious fortune of being sandwiched in between Russia and Germany. Throughout history, both countries have invaded Poland multiple times, often to fight each other on its soil.
Hungary was once the core of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, ruled by the Catholic Habsburg family. It was one of the empires destroyed in World War I.
Zagreb may not have as much art as some of its Italian counterparts (since colonization goes one way, generally!), but it's just as beautiful. It's also a lot cheaper to visit.
Vatican City is a sovereign nation. It's the smallest country in the world, only a few city blocks within Rome.
York is in England. England is the largest of the four nations that make up the country that is the United Kingdom.
Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands. It is one of the lowest-lying cities in Europe, with segments below sea level.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is not the most northerly capital city in Europe, but it is one of the snowiest!
Ukraine's capital city is Kiev. It's also home to an incredible garlicky and buttery chicken dish.
Romania is in the southeast of Europe. Its capital is Bucharest, a city that is very beautiful but has a very serious stray dog problem.
Belarus is formerly part of the USSR. Prior to that, it was a part of the Russian Empire called Belorussia. Minsk is its capital.
The Czech Republic was formerly part of Czecheslovakia. These days, they are two separate nations but they are on friendly terms. Prague is the Czech capital.
Belgrade is the Serbian capital. When Yugoslavia broke up, Serbia was the most powerful nation created in the split. Belgrade had been the Yugoslavian capital, so Serbia kept it as its capital.
Georgia is a former Soviet republic. It's now under threat from the north as an expansionist Russia expresses an interest in its Black Sea ports.
Sweden is one of the Nordic nations. It has one of the most prosperous societies in the world with full literacy and a solid healthcare system.
Norway is the most northerly country in the European mainland and has the loveiliest fjords. It's not a EU member since it wanted to keep its fishing and oil separate.
Finland is a very wealthy country in the north. It shares a border with Norway and Sweden. It has a very strong tech sector.
Estonia is one of the three Baltic states. Tallinn is the beautiful ancient city that is its capital. Estonia was previously part of the USSR.
Lithuania is the most southerly of the three Baltic states. It has also been previously conquered by Russia, though, in the past, it has sometimes done the same to its neighbors.
Latvia is another Baltic nation that was previously conquered by Russia. Its capital, Riga, is noted for its beautiful art nouveau architecture.
Bulgarian is a Balkan nation that was once a Soviet state. It is now a member of the EU and has a coast on the Black Sea.
Liverpool is a northern city in the U.K. and a major trading port. It is also where you go to catch the ferry to the Isle of Man!
Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark. Denmark is a very rich country that was conquered by the Nazis but resisted in fine style.
This is a lovely city in the southeastern area of France. It's just at the foothills of the Alps, making the surrounding area truly stunning.
Ljubljana is Slovenia's capital. The county lies between Italy and the former Yugoslavian states, and has a small coastline on the Adriatic Sea.
Slovakia was the other part of Czecheslovakia. Its capital, Bratislava, is on the Danube River by the German and Hungarian borders.