The relationship between management and labor in America has always been contentious -- and sometimes deadly. Test your knowledge of the nation's labor laws and the collective bargaining process.
The National Labor Relations Act legally established the rights and obligation of workers and management to bargain for fair wages and working conditions.
The NLRA was part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal legislation during the Great Depression.
The responsibility of the board, which is appointed by the president, is to enforce the NLRA and investigate accusations of unfair labor practices.
The frequency of strikes has dwindled since 1981, when President Reagan intervened in the air traffic controllers strike. In 2009 there were just 5.
President Kennedy extended collective bargaining rights to federal employees through an executive order.
Anyone with the power to hire or fire other employees is considered management and cannot bargain collectively.
Any group of workers with an elected representative has the right to bargain collectively.
The two sides are only required to bargain "in good faith." Unresolved disputes are often send to further arbitration or the courts.
A strike during an active contract is only legal if management is being accused of unfair labor practices.
Representatives of the workers or their union negotiate with a company representative in the presence of a private or government arbitrator.
Collective bargaining agreements almost always have an expiration date of three years, after which they can be extended or renegotiated.
Within 60 days of expiration, either party must file a notice with the FMCS so an arbitrator can initiate the negotiation process.
It is illegal to fire, demote or other intimidate a worker for joining a union.
If a company employs workers from several different unions, each one needs to have its own collective bargaining agreement.
A "no-strike/lockout" clause is common in collective bargaining agreements.
Union elections are run by the NLRB. If a majority of workers choose to join a union, management must sit down at the bargaining table.
An open shop does not require workers (even those holding the same job title) to join a union.
Yes, which is why even non-union workers are often required to pay a "service fee" to the union in lieu of dues.
Only the hiring and promotion of workers outside of management ranks is considered a mandatory a subject.
Failure to sign a collective bargaining agreement in 2004 led to a lockout by players in the National Hockey League that lasted 310 days, completely canceling the season.