The name Alcatraz may be synonymous with the island's infamous prison, but the federal lockup at Alcatraz represented just a small portion of the island's rich history. Think you know all there is to know about the people, events and moments that made The Rock so famous? Take our quiz to find out!
Spanish explorer Juan Manuel de Ayala dubbed the island La Isla de los Alcatraces, or Island of the Pelicans, when he mapped the area in 1775.
Before it was a tough prison, Alcatraz was home to the first west coast lighthouse in North America. A small lighthouse started operation on the island in 1854 and was replaced by a taller one in 1909.
President Millard Fillmore established Alcatraz as a military prison in 1850. By the end of the decade, Alcatraz was used to contain both military prisoners and Native Americans who spoke out against the U.S. government.
Alcatraz remained a military prison until 1933, when the Department of Justice took over and transformed Alcatraz into a part of the federal prison system. The prison officially opened its doors on July 1, 1934.
Alcatraz held only around 1 percent of all federal prisoners and typically housed only between 260 and 275 inmates at any given time.
Just 36 known people attempted escape from the island. Of those, 23 were caught right away, six were shot to death and two drowned. Another three who attempted escape in 1962 were never seen again and were assumed to have drowned.
Just over 1,500 men spent time at Alcatraz between 1934 and 1963, when the prison was closed due to high operating costs.
After the prison closed, a group of Native American protesters occupied the island for two years. They offered the U.S. government $24 (the price paid by the U.S. for Manhattan) to buy Alcatraz, but were eventually forcibly removed from the island.
The island became part of the Golden Gate Recreation Area in 1972 and was designated an official National Historic Landmark in 1986.
Alcatraz consisted of four cell blocks, with blocks B and C used to house prisoners in individual cells. Cell block A was mostly used for storage, while guards used Cell block D to contain unruly inmates.
The average inmate stayed at Alcatraz for just 8 years -- most were sent to the island due to poor behavior in other federal prisons. Only two men were ever paroled directly to freedom from Alcatraz Prison.
Capone was transferred from a federal prison in Atlanta to the island in August 1934. Prison officials felt it was the only way to prevent Capone from buying off guards and other inmates to enjoy special favors behind bars.
Capone spent four years on the island. During his time at Alcatraz, he was not only stabbed with a pair of scissors but also suffered greatly from the syphilis that later killed him.
Capone's behavior was so good at Alcatraz that he was permitted to join the prison band. The gangster played the banjo as part of "The Rock Islanders."
The legendary west coast mobster was actually the first person to ever be bailed out of Alcatraz after he was imprisoned for tax evasion.
George Kelly, who picked up the nickname Machine Gun after his favorite weapon, spent 17 years on the island. From 1934 to 1951, he served as an altar boy in the prison chapel and worked in both the laundry and administrative offices.
Stroud --the Birdman -- spent years raising birds from his prison cell and even wrote two books about canaries before he was sent to Alcatraz. During his 17 years on the island, he was forbidden from raising any birds as he had at other prisons.
Train robber Gardner served four years at Alcatraz from 1934 to 1938. He memorialized the prison in his book "Hellcatraz: The Rock of Despair," which offered an inmate's view of the island and its prisoners.
Young and McCain launched a failed escape attempt in 1938. The next year, Young stabbed McCain to death with a spoon, an act which served as the inspiration for the 1995 film "Murder in the First."
Nicknamed Creepy for his strange facial expressions, Karpis was the only person to be named the FBI's "Public Enemy No. 1" and then be taken alive. After his capture, he spent 26 years in Alcatraz.
The infamous gangster was at Alcatraz from 1959 to 1962 and was eventually released from prison altogether in 1965. He remained free for decades, eluding law enforcement until he was captured in 2011 at the age of 81.
Around 300 civilians -- guards, officials and their families -- lived in a series of apartment buildings and private homes outside the prison. They even had their own bowling alley and general store.
Roughly 28 inmates died on the island, including 8 who were murdered, 5 suicides and another 15 who died of natural causes.
Alcatraz measures around 22 acres and sits just 1.25 miles from the coast of California.
On December 16, 1962 a pair of inmates attempted to escape from Alcatraz. One was captured immediately, but the other -- John Paul Scott -- swam all the way to the mainland before he was found lying on the beach suffering from hypothermia.
People today are willing to pay for a chance to escape from the Rock. Held since 1981, the annual Escape from Alcatraz triathlon includes an eight-mile run, an 18-mile bike ride and a 1.5-mile swim through the frigid water.
Alcatraz finally closed in 1963 after the government decided that the $10-per-day per-prisoner price tag was too high. Similar prisons in other parts of the country cost just $3-per-day per-inmate to operate.
Around 1.4 million people willingly make the trip to the former prison each year -- many hundreds of times the number of people ever housed in Alcatraz.
Clint Eastwood played Frank Morris, who along with brothers Clarence and John Anglin escaped from the island in 1962. The ending of the 1979 film mimicked the real story of the escape -- the three men were never seen again, and no one knows whether they simply drowned or made a clean getaway.
The series, which explored a world in which the prisoners and staff of the island were transported into modern-day San Francisco, ran for just a single season in 2012.