A very beautiful art form, stained glass has been around for almost a thousand years. In the 19th century, designers like Tiffany elevated stained glass making into a popular art form, not just a religious one. Take our quiz and see how much you know about the history and technique of stained glass art making.
The early Egyptians are credited with developing the art of stained glass making, probably using it for jewelry as well as currency
Stained glass windows use light, glass and metal to create a design and tell a story. Early designs for churches often told Bible stories through pictures.
Though many early church masterpieces have been destroyed over the years, two prominent examples that remain are at Canterbury Cathedral in England and at Chartres Cathedral in France.
Japanese artist Kazuhide Yoshikawa created soccer ball-shaped lampshades built of stained glass at Hirakata in western Japan.
Theophilus, a 12th century monk, described glass-making and the creation of stained glass windows in his work "On Diverse Arts."
In contrast to its generally stagnant development in other areas, during the late Middle ages churches became bigger and more grandiose and so did their stained glass window designs.
You can see the oldest existing stained glass window at the Augsburg Cathedral in Germany, which dates from the 12th century.
During the Victorian Gothic revival of the 19th century, there was renewed interest in stained glass making. Designers like Louis Comfort Tiffany, Alfred Bell and William Morris introduced new designs and materials to the art.
Louis Comfort Tiffany introduced the copper foil construction method that made working with curves and assembling designs easier.
To melt silica or sand requires a temperature of 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,650 degrees Celsius) in a kiln or glasshouse pot.
Substances such as boric acid, lime, caustic soda and potash are added to silica to strengthen it and to cause it to melt at lower temperatures than silica alone.
Metal oxides are added to the melted silica to create colored glass. The molten glass, known as gob, is then refired and shaped.
Glass blowing is an art that has endured for almost a thousand years. Artists use a blowpipe to make a glass cylinder that is then cut and cooled slowly.
A magnificent work of art, the upside down, stained glass dome is located at the Palace of Catalan Music in Barcelona, Spain
Table glass, also called cathedral glass and rolled glass, is made by spreading molten glass onto a metallic work surface and then rolling it into a sheet.
Also created by rolling, textured or pressed glass is made in a way similar to table glass. This type of glass catches the light in unique ways due to the distinctive texture or pattern that is worked into it as it cools.
Flashed glass is a type of colored glass that is not opaque. Clear glass is coated on both sides with two very thin veneers of colored glass, which remain transparent.
To create glass in different shapes, molds may be used. Rondels and art glass cabochons are two examples of glass shapes that are created with molds.
To cut glass, artists use carbon steel glass cutters, diamond cutters and circle cutters, among others. Different cutters are suitable for different projects and are basically a matter of personal preference.
To create detail, texture and shading, stain glass artists might use engraving, embossing with acid, sandblasting or painting to modify glass and create the effect they want.