Todd Betzold

# The owner of a kennel is making a playtime schedule for dogs A, B, C, D, E and F. While making the chart, she must follow these guidelines: Dog E cannot play with dog A. Dogs C and D must play first. Dog F must play last. Dogs A and B cannot play together. Which of the following would meet the playing guidelines?

C and D have to play first, so the first answer would not work. In the third answer, A and B cannot play together, so that option wouldn't work either. In the fourth answer, D has to play first, so that one's out. That leaves the second answer as the viable option.

# In Lake County, there are no edible fish in the streams because there are no pesticide controls. Which statement below must you assume in order to make the above conclusion true?

This sentence assumes that when there are no pesticide controls in place, there are no edible fish in the waters. That's what the third answer says, while the others are saying the opposite.

# An employee generates five-digit product codes for a company. The product codes have to follow these rules: The codes use only the digits of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4. Each digit appears exactly one time in any code. The second digit has a value exactly twice that of the first digit. The value of the fifth digit is more than the value of the third digit. If the last digit of a product code is 1, which statement is true?

Since the last digit is 1, that means the third digit has to be less than 1, so it has to be 0. Then the second digit has to be twice that of the first digit, which would give us a first digit of 2 and a second digit of 4. That leaves 3 as the fourth digit in the product code.

# Most people that enjoy sports play some sort of sport themselves; therefore, if Ben enjoys sports, he probably plays some kind of sport. Which of the following statements most closely parallels the reasoning in the previous statement?

The second answer parallels both the reasoning and structure of the original statement. You can summarize it by saying that most X -> Y; therefore X -> Y.

# A film club has a festival on Thursday, Friday and Saturday. Three movies — "Venom," "Annihilation" and "Glass" — are shown at least once during the festival, but never more than once on a given day. Each day, at least one film is shown and never more than one film at a time. These conditions must be met: "Annihilation" is shown on Thursday and no other movie is shown after it on that day. "Venom" or "Glass" are shown on Friday, but not both of them. No movie is shown after it on that day. "Venom" or "Annihilation" are shown on Saturday, but not both of them. No movie is shown after it on that day. Which of the following orders would work for the movies to be shown at the festival?

For the first one, both "Venom" and "Glass" cannot be shown on Friday, so it breaks the rules. For the third option, "Venom" is never shown. For the fourth option, no movie is shown after "Venom" or "Glass" that day, so "Annihilation" could not be shown and the schedule doesn't work. That means the second option works.

# A new credit union opened, and it is only open on the weekends. It is open all day Saturday and Sunday and closed the other days. They have hired eight full-time employees: two managers (A and B), four tellers (C, D, E and F), and two operation officers (G and H). There are no part-time employees, and each employee works the full day when working. Here is what we know: A manager must be on duty when the credit union is open. The managers cannot work on the same day. At least two tellers must be working on the same day. C and D will not work on the same day together. F and G can only work on Saturdays. No employee can work on consecutive days. Each employee must work on Saturday or Sunday. Which statement would be false?

Managers cannot work on the same day together. However, that does not affect which managers and tellers can work. D has no effect on when A can work and vice versa.

# Jennifer is a fashion designer. She is trying to get ready for work and has to get the right color combination, as her clients would judge her if she were off. She has two skirts (brown and blue); three blouses (white, sky blue and gray); four pairs of stockings (red, black, brown and blue); and two pairs of shoes (black and brown). Her own criteria are: Gray does not go well with brown. Red or brown stockings cannot be worn with the blue skirt. Brown does not go well with black. If Jennifer wears black shoes, what won't she wear?

Since she is wearing the black shoes, that means she can't wear the brown skirt. Therefore, she is wearing the blue skirt, which means she cannot wear the red stockings.

# Fred has five vintage cars and he needs to get rid of four of them. He owns a silver Ferrari, black Lamborghini, red Alfa Romeo, burnt orange Maserati and yellow Jaguar. Here are the four buyers interested in his cars: Stacy prefers silver. Nick likes everything. Michelle hates orange. Matt loves yellow and orange. Given those statements, which of the following is most likely to occur?

Matt loves yellow and orange, so he can buy the burnt orange Maserati. Stacy prefers silver, so she buys the silver Ferrari. Michelle hates orange, so the black Lamborghini is for her. Nick likes everything, so he can buy the red Alfa Romeo. That leaves the yellow Jaguar for Fred.

# You have buses 1, 2 and 3, which make only one trip each day. They are also the only buses that passengers A, B, C, D, E, F and G take. G does not ride bus 2 on the same day that D does. When B takes bus 1, neither E nor G will be on it also. C only takes bus 3. If A and F are taking the same bus, it would be bus 3. If B, C and G travel to work together, which bus could they take together on a given day?

There are a lot of details to process in this one. However, it's pretty simple. Passenger C only takes bus 3, so the three passengers have to take bus 3 in order to satisfy the needs of C.

# Four doctors (Shaun, Michael, Cindy and Melissa) are sitting around a square table. One is a dentist, one is an optometrist, one is a surgeon and one is a general practitioner. One doctor is on each side of the table. Here are the criteria we know: Shaun is across from the dentist. The general practitioner is not on Melissa's immediate left. The optometrist is on Cindy's immediate left. The surgeon and general practitioner are married to each other. Michael is not across from the surgeon. The general practitioner is across from the optometrist. Melissa is the general practitioner. Which of the following statements is true?

In Statement 6, it states the general practitioner is across from the optometrist. Based on that, the dentist has to be across from the surgeon.

# Unlike the graduates of American high schools, the high school graduates in Bermuda finish high school with four years of completed advanced mathematics. If this is true, which of the following statements would help explain this situation?

The other options may lead to Bermuda having more math studies than the United States. However, the second option clearly tells us why their graduates have four years of advanced math, as it's a requirement.

# Fred has five vintage cars. He owns a silver Ferrari, black Lamborghini, red Alfa Romeo, burnt orange Maserati and yellow Jaguar. Here are the four buyers interested in his cars: Stacy prefers silver. Nick likes everything. Michelle hates orange. Matt loves yellow and orange. Fred only wants to sell three of the cars. Which scenario would allow that to happen?

Matt loves yellow and orange, so the yellow Jaguar is for him. Stacy prefers silver, so the silver Ferrari is for her. Nick likes everything, so he takes the red Alfa Romeo, and that leaves Fred with the Maserati and Lamborghini.

# A new credit union opened and it is only open on the weekends. It is open all day Saturday and Sunday and closed the other days. They have hired eight full-time employees: 2 managers (A and B); 4 tellers (C, D, E and F); 2 operation officers (G and H). There are no part-time employees and each employee works the full day when working. Here is what we know: A manager must be on duty when the credit union is open. The managers cannot work on the same day. At least two tellers must be working on the same day. C and D will not work on the same day together. F and G can only work on Saturdays. No employee can work on consecutive days. Each employee must work on Saturday or Sunday. Which group of employees could work on a Saturday together?

The second and fourth options have two operation officers working together, which isn't allowed. The third option has two managers working together, which means the first option is correct.

# All bosses like some of their employees. No boss likes all of his or her employees. If those statements are true, then all of the following are true except which one?

In the statements, there is never any mention of a majority. So the statement about liking most of their employees is not true.

# Anne says that all British people make great workers. Tyler disagrees and says that isn't so and he's met some Italians who are excellent workers. Tyler has misunderstood Anne's comment. What did he think she was saying?

Tyler believes that Anne meant that only British people are great workers. He does not agree with that statement, so he defends his thoughts and says that he has met some Italians who are also great workers.

# In 1975, the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had exclusive rights to any oil and gas resources on the Atlantic Outer Shelf beyond the 3-mile limit. For this ruling to be logical, which of the following must be true?

If the Supreme Court is making a ruling on this issue, then there must be oil and gas resources in the Atlantic Outer Shelf. It is crazy to think they would rule on something that doesn't exist. The other options have nothing to do with the ruling.

# Urban Los Angeles has a high crime rate. The rural community of Pottsville has a low crime rate. The small agricultural community of Shady Junction has high criminal activity. Meanwhile, Washington, D.C. has a low rate of criminal activity. Based on those statements, which of the following is true?

The statements declare that crime can be high or low in both urban and rural communities. Because of that, crime is not linked solely to one specific community type.

# Fifty years ago, hardly anybody would take another person to court and sue them. If someone driving a Chrysler Airflow bumped into a pedestrian, they would say "no harm done" and move on with their lives. No court proceedings or juries needed. Which sentence below would best continue this paragraph?

The paragraph is comparing the past to the present. In the past, people didn't sue others that much. In the present, people are sue-crazy, and that is why the third option is correct.

# Four doctors (Shaun, Michael, Cindy and Melissa) are sitting around a square table. One is a dentist, one is an optometrist, one is a surgeon and one is a general practitioner. One doctor is on each side of the table. Here are the criteria we know: Shaun is across from the dentist. The general practitioner is not on Melissa's immediate left. The optometrist is on Cindy's immediate left. The surgeon and general practitioner are married to each other. Michael is not across from the surgeon. The general practitioner is across from the optometrist. Melissa is the general practitioner. What profession is Cindy?

We know that Melissa is the general practitioner. We also know that the optometrist is on Cindy's immediate left. The surgeon and general practitioner are married, so the surgeon has to be Shaun or Michael. That means Cindy is the dentist.

# Recent studies show that the average height of the American citizen has increased by 2 inches in the past 10 years. This has people thinking that modern foods stimulate growth. Which statement would make this argument even stronger?

The first and last option just weaken the argument. It makes no sense for the second option to be correct, so it has to be the third option — using studies to help the argument.

# A new credit union opened and it is only open on the weekends. It is open all day Saturday and Sunday and closed the other days. They have hired eight full-time employees: 2 managers (A and B); 4 tellers (C, D, E and F); 2 operation officers (G and H). There are no part-time employees and each employee works the full day when working. Here is what we know: A manager must be on duty when the credit union is open. The managers cannot work on the same day. At least two tellers must be working on the same day. C and D will not work on the same day together. F and G can only work on Saturdays. No employee can work on consecutive days. Each employee must work on Saturday or Sunday. If C works on Sunday, which of the following statements is true?

C's schedule has no effect on the schedule of A, F or H. They could work either day, so the statements concerning them could be true or false. However, C and D cannot work on the same day together, so D has to work on Saturday.

# An independent agency conducted two studies to determine the cause of low achievement among minority students. Study I came from private schools with a minority population of at least 30%. Study II came from public schools with the same minority population percentage. Here are the results: The average achievement scores were 20% higher in Study I. Achievement scores were higher in Study II at schools with a component requiring parent involvement. The average was still not as high as the top-achieving schools in Study I. Based on this, which of the following statements can be concluded?

All of the statements could be true. However, only one of them is proven in the two studies. These studies showed us that parent involvement is a possible contributing factor in student achievement.

# Ted test drives a red truck. After driving it, Ted comes to the conclusion that since the truck was red, it must not accelerate quickly. This conclusion can be properly drawn if which of the following were also true?

The statement doesn't give us much to work with. We know that Ted drove a red truck, and he concluded that it has to be slow since it's red. To come to that, it has to be known that certain-colored vehicles accelerate quickly, like blue trucks in the final answer.

# In a study, pregnant lab rats were given caffeine that was equivalent to a human drinking six cups of coffee per day. This caused an increase in the incidence of birth defect results in the rats. The government refused to require warning labels be placed on products containing caffeine based on this study. They said they would lose credibility if the findings were later refuted. What does this statement suggest?

This study on the rats has not been proven conclusively. If the government issued the warning before that happened and it was later proven to be false, then they would definitely lose credibility.

# The city council refused to ban smoking in restaurants. They clearly put the restaurants' well-being ahead of the health of the citizens. There is no doubt the city council would support the restaurants if they decided to use asbestos napkins or barbecue their meat using radioactivity. This would be no riskier than allowing smoking in the restaurant. This person is making their case against the city council using what?

This person is using analogy to make their case. They are comparing the dangers of smoking to the dangers of asbestos and radioactivity.

# They say that you do not succeed unless you take a gamble. They also say that gambling is foolish. So, that would mean only fools succeed. Which of the following statements would weaken that conclusion the most?

The conclusion states that only fools succeed. That first answer states that some people succeed without gambling, which is true. That is why it weakens the conclusion the most.

# Four doctors (Shaun, Michael, Cindy and Melissa) are sitting around a square table. One is a dentist, one is an optometrist, one is a surgeon and one is a general practitioner. One doctor is on each side of the table. Here are the criteria we know: Shaun is across from the dentist. The general practitioner is not on Melissa's immediate left. The optometrist is on Cindy's immediate left. The surgeon and general practitioner are married to each other. Michael is not across from the surgeon. The general practitioner is across from the optometrist. Melissa is the general practitioner. If both women get up from the table, which doctors remain?

We have determined that Melissa is the general practitioner and Cindy is the dentist. Based on that, if they left the table, it would leave us with the surgeon and the optometrist.

# An employee generates five-digit product codes for a company. The product codes have to follow these rules: The codes use only the digits of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4. Each digit appears exactly one time in any code. The second digit has a value exactly twice that of the first digit. The value of the fifth digit is more than the value of the third digit. All of the following options could be the third and fourth digits except which one?

The value of the fifth digit has to be higher than the value of the third digit. The only way 3 could be the third digit is if 4 were the fifth digit. That means 3 and 4 would not work for this question.

# The owner of a kennel is making the schedule for dog play times for dogs A, B, C, D, E and F. While making the chart, she must follow these guidelines: Dog E cannot play with dog A. Dogs C and D must play first. Dog F must play last. Dogs A and B cannot play together. If the owner creates two play times, which of the following would be true?

Based on the guidelines, the last answer would be correct. Dog D has to play first and dog F has to play last. Since there are two playtimes, that means they'd never play together.

# A landlord tells their tenant they need last month's rent. The tenant replies by saying, "First, I've already paid it. Second, I don't owe you anything. Third, not until you fix the heater." The tenant's response is weak due to which of the following?

The tenant starts his response by saying he already paid the landlord and owes him no money. However, he follows it up by saying he is paying nothing until the heater is fixed. But we thought he owed him nothing?

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